Dr Len Hamey, Publications

The following lists my publications. Many are available as PDF files. A list with abstracts is also available.

Publications

M. Shahpasand, L. Hamey, D. Vatsalan, and M. Xue, "Adversarial attacks on mobile malware detection," in AI4Mobile 2019 - 2019 IEEE 1st International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Mobile, pp. 17-24, 2019. (Abstract)

T. Hassanzadeh, L. G. C. Hamey, and K. Ho-Shon, "Convolutional neural networks for prostate magnetic resonance image segmentation," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 36748-36760, 2019. (Abstract, Full Paper)

O. M. Nezami, M. Dras, P. Anderson, and L. Hamey, "Face-Cap: image captioning using facial expression analysis," in Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML-PKDD 2018. Proceedings, Part I, pp. 226-240, 2019. (Abstract)

S. Alam, L. Hamey, and K. Ho-Shon, "Impact of mri protocols on alzheimer's disease detection," in International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA 2018), pp. 1-8, 2018. (Abstract)

M. Yousefi-Azar, L. Hamey, V. Varadharajan, and S. Chen, "Learning latent byte-level feature representation for malware detection," in Neural Information Processing: 25th International Conference, ICONIP 2018, Proceedings, Part IV, pp. 568-578, 2018. LNCS 11304. (Abstract)

M. Yousefi-Azar, L. Hamey, V. Varadharajan, and S. Chen, "Malytics: A malware detection scheme," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 49418-49431, 2018. (Abstract, Full Paper)

S. Singh, K. Ho-Shon, S. Karimi, and L. Hamey, "Modality classification and concept detection in medical images using deep transfer learning," in International Conference on Image and Vision Computing New Zealand (IVCNZ 2018), pp. 1-9, 2018. (Abstract)

Y. Bachiller, P. Busch, M. Kavakli, and L. Hamey, "Survey: Big data application in biomedical research," in Proceedings of the 2018 10th International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE 2018), pp. 174-178, 2018. (Abstract)

M. Yousefi-Azar, L. Hamey, V. Varadharajan, and M. McDonnell, "Fast, automatic and scalable learning to detect android malware," in Proceedings of Neural Information Processing (ICONIP 2017), part V, pp. 848-857, 2017. LNCS vol. 10638. (Abstract)

O. M. Nezami, D. Richards, and L. Hamey, "Semi-supervised detection of student engagement," in PACIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017. (Abstract, Full Paper)

M. Yousefi-Azar, V. Varadharajan, L. Hamey, and U. Tupakula, "Autoencoder-based feature learning for cyber security applications," in 2017 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), pp. 3854-3861, 2017. (Abstract, Full Paper)

M. Yousefi-Azar and L. Hamey, "Text summarization using unsupervised deep learning," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 68, pp. 93-105, 2017. (Abstract, Full Paper)

C. Z. Liu, M. Kavakli, S. McCallum, and L. Hamey, "Motion-keying based dynamical scene layering with adaptive learning," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering, (Sydney, Australia), pp. 111-115, 2017. (Abstract, Full Paper)

H. Jahani-Fariman, H. J. Alyamani, M. Kavakli, and L. Hamey, "Designing a user-defined gesture vocabulary for an in-vehicle climate control system," in Proceedings of the 28th Australian Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (OzCHI 2016) (C. Parker, ed.), (Launceston, Australia), pp. 391-395, 2016. (Abstract, Full Paper)

D. Wesche, T. J. Watkins, and L. G. C. Hamey, "Pantograph damage and wear monitoring system," US Patent 9061594, 2015. Also published as CN101784887A, CN103223870A, EP2174117A1, EP2174117A4, US20100322465, WO2009018612A1. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "A functional approach to border handling in image processing," in International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (D. Suter, ed.), (Adelaide, Australia), pp. 15-22, IEEE Conference Publications, 2015. (Abstract, Full Paper)

M. Yousefi Azar, K. Sirts, D. Molla Aliod, and L. Hamey, "Query-based single document summarization using an ensemble noisy encoder," in Proceedings of Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop (B. Hachey and K. Webster, eds.), (Parramatta, Australia), pp. 2-10, ALTA, 2015. (Abstract, Full Paper)

A. M. Sloane, M. Roberts, and L. G. C. Hamey, "Respect your parents: How attribution and rewriting can get along," in Software Language Engineering (B. Combemale, D. Pearce, O. Barais, and J. Vinju, eds.), vol. 8706 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 191-210, Springer, 2014. (Abstract, Full Paper)

S. Premaratne, A. M. Sloane, and L. G. C. Hamey, "An evaluation of a pure embedded domain-specific language for strategic term rewriting," in Formal and Practical Aspects of Domain-Specific Languages: Recent Developments (M. Mernik, ed.), pp. 81-108, IGI Global, 2013. (Abstract, Full Paper)

G. Gupta, J. Pieprzyk, and L. Hamey, "Bucket attack on numeric set watermarking model and safeguards," Information Security Technical Report, vol. 16, pp. 59-66, May 2011. (Abstract, Full Paper)

A. Sarker and L. G. C. Hamey, "Improved reconstruction of flutter shutter images for motion blur reduction," in International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (J. Zheng, C. Shen, G. Geers, and Q. Wu, eds.), (Sydney, Australia), pp. 417-422, IEEE Conference Publications, 2010. Best paper award. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Radiometric camera calibration," in Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering (B. W. Wah, ed.), vol. 4, pp. 2329-2338, Wiley, 2009.

L. G. C. Hamey, R. E. Connally, S. Wong Too Yen, T. S. Lawson, J. A. Piper, and J. Iredell, "Luminescent microspheres resolved from strong background on an automated time-gates luminescence microscopy workstation," in Proceedings of Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (H. Shi, Y. Zhang, M. J. Bottema, B. C. Lovell, and A. J. Maeder, eds.), (Melbourne, Australia), pp. 223-228, IEEE Computer Society, 2009. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey and S. N. Goldrei, "Implementing a domain-specific language using Stratego/XT: An experience paper," Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 37-51, 2008. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, T. Watkins, and S. Wong Too Yen, "Pancam: in-service inspection of locomotive pantographs," in Proceedings of Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (M. J. Bottema, A. Maeder, N. Redding, and A. van der Hengel, eds.), (Glenelg, South Australia, Australia), pp. 493-499, IEEE Computer Society, ISBN 0 7695 3067 2, 2007. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Efficient image processing with the Apply language," in Proceedings of Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (M. J. Bottema, A. Maeder, N. Redding, and A. van der Hengel, eds.), (Glenelg, South Australia, Australia), pp. 533-540, IEEE Computer Society, ISBN 0 7695 3067 2, 2007. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Simultaneous estimation of camera response function, target reflectance and irradiance values," in Proceedings of Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (B. C. Lovell, A. J. Maeder, T. Caelli, and S. Ourselin, eds.), (Cairns, Australia), pp. 51-58, IEEE Computer Society, ISBN 0 7695 2467 2, 2005. Best colour paper award. (Abstract, Full Paper, On-line conference proceedings)

L. G. C. Hamey and C. Priest, "Automatic number plate recognition for Australian conditions," in Proceedings of Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (B. C. Lovell, A. J. Maeder, T. Caelli, and S. Ourselin, eds.), (Cairns, Australia), pp. 87-94, IEEE Computer Society, ISBN 0 7695 2467 2, 2005. (Abstract, Full Paper, On-line conference proceedings)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Teaching secure communications protocols using a game representation," in Proceedings of the Fifth Australasian Computing Education Conference (T. Greening and R. Lister, eds.), vol. 20 of Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology, (Adelaide, Australia), pp. 187-196, Australian Computer Society, ISBN 0-909925-98-4, 2003. (Abstract, Full Paper, On-line conference proceedings)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Using the Security Protocol Game to teach computer network security," in Proceedings of Improving Learning Outcomes Through Flexible Science Teaching (K. Placing, ed.), (Sydney, Australia), pp. 96-101, Uniserve Science, 2003. (Abstract, Full Paper, On-line symposium proceedings)

L. G. C. Hamey, "A simulation game for teaching secure data communications protocols," in And Gladly Teche: Celebrating Teaching at Macquarie (A. Reid, M. Gosper, and S. Fraser, eds.), (Macquarie University, Australia), The Centre for Professional Development and the Centre for FLexible Learning, Macquarie University, Australia, ISBN 1-86408-793-5, 2002. (Abstract, Full Paper, On-line conference proceedings)

L. G. C. Hamey, "XOR has no local minima: A case study in neural network error surface analysis," Neural Networks, vol. 11, pp. 669-681, 1998. (Abstract, Reprint available)

L. G. C. Hamey, J. C.-H. Yeh, T. Westcott, and S. K. Y. Sung, "Pre-processing colour images with a self-organising map: Baking curve identification and bake image segmentation," in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, (Brisbane, Australia), pp. 1771-1775, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, ISBN 0 8186 8512 3, 1998. (Abstract, Full Paper)

J. C.-H. Yeh, L. G. C. Hamey, and T. Westcott, "Developing FFNN applications using cross-validated validation training," in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Processing Systems, (Gold Coast, Australia), pp. 565-569, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, ISBN 0 646 33229 5, 1998. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, J. C.-H. Yeh, and C. Ng, "Objective bake assessment using image analysis and artificial intelligence," in Cereals '97: Proceedings of the 47th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, (Perth, Australia), pp. 180-184, North Melbourne, Australia: Royal Australian Chemical Institute, ISBN 0909589941, 1997. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. Hamey, J. Yeh, and C. Ng, "Machine inspection system for bake colour quality," in Process Control and Optimisation Seminar, (Sydney, Australia), Cooperative Research Centre for International Food Manufacture and Packaging Science, Nov. 1997. (unpublished).

J. Gibb and L. Hamey, "MINNI: micromouse incorporating neural network intelligence," in Proceedings of the Twentieth Australasian Computer Science Conference, (Sydney, Australia), pp. 194-201, Australian Computer Science Communications volume 19, number 1, ISSN 0157-3055, 1997. (Abstract, Full Paper)

A. M. Pleasants and L. G. C. Hamey, "Photometric stereo using extended rectangular lights," in Proceedings of the First Joint Australia & New Zealand Biennial Conference on: Digital Image & Vision Computing - Techniques and Applications, (Auckland, New Zealand), pp. 533-538, Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dept. Production Technology, Massey University, ISBN 0 473 04947 3, 1997. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "Active learning-approaches and issues," Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 7, pp. 205-243, 1997. (Abstract, Reprint available)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Analysis of the error surface of the XOR network with two hidden nodes," in Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks (P. Bartlett, A. Burkitt, and R. C. Williamson, eds.), (Canberra, Australia), pp. 179-183, The Australian National University, ISBN 0 7315 2429 2, Apr. 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Results on weight configurations that are not local minima in feed-forward neural networks," in Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks (P. Bartlett, A. Burkitt, and R. C. Williamson, eds.), (Canberra, Australia), pp. 173-178, The Australian National University, ISBN 0 7315 2429 2, Apr. 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey and J. C.-H. Yeh, "Segmentation of bake images by a self-organising map," in Image Segmentation Workshop, (Sydney, Australia), pp. 65-68, Australian Pattern Recognition Society, Dec. 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "XOR has no local minima," in NIPS*96 Workshop: Modeling Error Surfaces, (Denver, Co.), 1996. (invited presentation, unpublished). (Slide Show)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "Active learning for nonlinear system identification and control," in Proceedings of IFAC World Congress 1996 (J. J. Gertler, J. B. Cruz, Jr, and M. Peshkin, eds.), vol. F, (San Fransisco), pp. 193-197, Pergamon, ISBN 0 08 042605 0, 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "Accurate modelling with minimised data collection-an active learning algorithm," in Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks (P. Bartlett, A. Burkitt, and R. C. Williamson, eds.), (Canberra, Australia), pp. 11-15, The Australian National University, ISBN 0 7315 2429 2, Apr. 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri, L. G. C. Hamey, and R. D. Bell, "From conventional control to autonomous intelligent methods," IEEE Control Systems, vol. 16, pp. 78-84, Oct. 1996. (Abstract)

C. T. Westcott and L. G. C. Hamey, "Data recognition system," Patent application WO96/18975, Arnott's Biscuits Limited; also published as AU4111496 (1996), CA 2207326 (1996), GB 2311369 (1997), DE 19581867 (1997), CN 11704679 (1998), JP 10511786 (1998), NZ 296487 (2000), 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "The structure of neural network error surfaces," in Proceedings of the Sixth Australian Conference on Neural Networks (M. Charles and C. Latimer, eds.), (Sydney, Australia), pp. 197-200, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Sydney, ISBN 0 909391 03 3, Feb. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri, J. C.-H. Yeh, L. G. C. Hamey, and C. T. Westcott, "Baked product classification with the use of a self-organising map," in Proceedings of the Sixth Australian Conference on Neural Networks (M. Charles and C. Latimer, eds.), (Sydney, Australia), pp. 152-155, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Sydney, ISBN 0 909391 03 3, Feb. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "An algorithm for active data collection applied to neural network training," in AAAI Fall Symposium on Active Learning, (MIT, Boston, USA), Nov. 1995. (unpublished).

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "Minimisation of data collection by active learning," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, vol. 3, (Perth, Australia), pp. 1338-1341, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, ISBN 0 7803 2768 3, Nov. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri, L. G. C. Hamey, and R. D. Bell, "Neural network control using active learning," in Control 95, vol. 2, pp. 369-373, Barton, ACT, Australia: Inst. of Engineers, ISBN 0 85825 631 2, Oct. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri, J. C.-H. Yeh, L. G. C. Hamey, S. K. Y. Sung, and T. Westcott, "A connectionist approach to quality assessment of food products," in Proceedings of the Eighth Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (X. Yao, ed.), (Canberra, Australia), pp. 435-441, Singapore: World Scientific, ISBN 981 02 2484 2, Nov. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

J. C.-H. Yeh, L. G. C. Hamey, C. T. Westcott, and S. K. Y. Sung, "Colour bake inspection system using hybrid artificial neural networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, vol. 1, (Perth, Australia), pp. 37-42, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, ISBN 0 7803 2768 3, Nov. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Comments on ``can backpropagation error surface not have local minima''," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 5, p. 844, Sept. 1994.

J. C.-H. Yeh and L. G. C. Hamey, "Biscuit bake assessment by an artificial neural network," in Proceedings of the Fifth Australian Conference on Neural Networks (A. C. Tsoi and T. Downs, eds.), (Brisbane, Australia), pp. 266-269, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Queensland, Feb. 1994. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, A. J. Watson, and C. T. Westcott, "Machine inspection of biscuit bake," in Proceedings of Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (K. K. Fung and A. Ginige, eds.), (Sydney, Australia), pp. 124-129, Australian Pattern Recognition Society, ISBN 0 646 16522 4, Dec. 1993. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Benchmarking feed-forward neural networks: Models and measures," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, and R. P. Lippmann, eds.), pp. 1167-1174, San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1992. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, J. A. Webb, and I.-C. Wu, "An architecture independent programming language for low-level vision," Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 48, pp. 246-264, 1989. (Abstract)

L. G. C. Hamey and T. Kanade, "Computer analysis of regular repetitive textures," in Proceedings of the Image Understanding Workshop, pp. 1076-1088, 1989. (Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, Computer Perception of Repetitive Textures. PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, Feb. 1988. Also available as Technical Report CMU-CS-88-149. (Full thesis: searchable scanned PDF 7.7MB)

L. G. C. Hamey, J. A. Webb, and I.-C. Wu, "Low-level vision on Warp and the Apply programming model," in Parallel Computation and Computers for Artificial Intelligence (J. Kowalik, ed.), ch. 10, pp. 185-199, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988. (Abstract)

M. Annaratone, F. Bitz, J. Deutch, L. Hamey, H. Kung, P. Maulik, P. Tsend, and J. Webb, "Applications experience on Warp," in Proceedings of the National Computer Conference, (AFIPS, Chicago, Il), pp. 149-158, June 1987. (Full Paper)

Technical Reports

L. G. C. Hamey and S. N. Goldrei, "Implementing the Apply compiler using Stratego/XT," Tech. Rep. C/TR07-01, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, Feb. 2007. (Abstract, Full Paper)

D. B. Hayward and L. Hamey, Araucaria Colour Matching. Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation, Report on project PN01.1901, 2005. (Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "Cost effective querying leading to dual control," Tech. Rep. C/TR96-07, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, May 1996. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Analysis of the error surface of the XOR network with two hidden nodes," Tech. Rep. 95-167C, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, Feb. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

J. Gibb and L. Hamey, "A comparison of back propagation implementations," Tech. Rep. C/TR95-06, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, Sept. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "From conventional control to intelligent neurocontrol methods-a survey of the literature," Tech. Rep. 95-170C, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, Mar. 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

T. RayChaudhuri and L. G. C. Hamey, "An algorithm for active data collection for learning-feasibility study with neural networks," Tech. Rep. 95-173C, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, May 1995. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "On human perception of regular repetitive textures," Tech. Rep. 92-94C, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, 1992. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, "Efficient image processing on RISC workstations," Tech. Rep. 92-113C, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, 1992. (Abstract, Full Paper)

C. G. Perrott and L. G. C. Hamey, "Object recognition-a survey of the literature," Tech. Rep. 91-65C, Department of Computing, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 Australia, Jan. 1991. (Abstract, Full Paper)

L. G. C. Hamey, J. A. Webb, and I.-C. Wu, "Low-level vision on Warp and the Apply programming model," Tech. Rep. CMU-RI-TR-87-17, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1987. (Abstract, Full Paper)

Theses Supervised

T. Hassanzadeh, "Convolutional neural networks for prostate magnetic resonance image segmentation," MRes thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2018.

S. Alam, "Impact of MRI technology on Alzheimer's disease detection," MRes thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2018.

M. Yousefi Azar, "Query-oriented single-document summarization using unsupervised deep learning," MRes thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2015.

B. K. Watson, Network Protocol Design with Machiavellian Robustness. PhD thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2010. (Abstract)

T. RayChaudhuri, Seeking the Valuable Domain - Query Learning in a Cost-Optimal Perspective. PhD thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1997. (Abstract, Full Paper)

J. C.-H. Yeh, "Colour bake inspection using artificial neural networks," MSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1997.

J. Gibb, "Generalisation and performance of a back propagation network applied to a small robot," MSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1996.

C. G. Perrott, "Perceptual grouping for recognition of deformable objects," MSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1995.

Honours Theses Supervised

A. Sarker, "Motion blur reduction from captured images," BIS(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2009.

J. Cameron, "Object motion with occlusion - a neural network approach," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2003.

C. W. Yip, "Secure voice over IP: Enhancing the performance of VoIP with VPN and enforcing H.323 VoIP access control," BCompSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2003.

D. Williams, "Securing voice over IP: The role and implementation of a gatekeeper," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Department of Computing, 2003.

A. Ruckholdt, "Plant system emulation with on-line learning," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1995.

S. K. Y. Sung, "A study of baking curve," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1993.

J. C.-H. Yeh, "Baking inspection using artificial neural networks," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1993.

P. A. Bayliss, "Artificial neural networks for edge detection in computer vision," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1992.

W. Edwards, "An object-oriented approach to neural network simulators," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1992.

M. L. Allsop, "Applications of functional methods to image processing," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1991.

J. Gibb, "Benchtesting of backpropagation learning for neural networks," BSc(hons) thesis, Macquarie University, Computing Department, 1991.